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Sabtu, 16 Februari 2013

Marayama The Last Pakkacaping

Bismillah in open this post 
Marayama, a Kacaping1 Maestro . If we look up at her body, you will not believe that she is a Kacaping Player and tremendeous singer. Her body is very old, hunchback, wrinkled skin, oldwoman typical. But when she's holding a Kacaping  start to picking the strings and singing, there was a great energy that radiates. Yes, that's the hallmark of the maestro. Like the late Ma’Coppong, her body is very weak, but when dancing, her figure like a young girl.
Marayama lived amid chocolate and coconut palms, close to Timbu-timbu Hills. Quite difficult to find her home without asking people around there. To find Maryama’s house, we can use motorcycle from Tinambung, pass Galung Lombok Village, Renggeang Village,  and Tandassura Village  (About 10 km from Trans Sulawesi Highway). Between mosques and  Tandassura Elementary School, there is a small road into the middle garden. Winding roads, through one or two stage home. About 300 m from the axis of Tandassura or 1 km from Mandar River, There was a simply house belongs to Marayama. Almost everything made from wood and bamboo, except the front wall of the House are made of zinc. No electricity at home. So when the evening using oil lamps as the light. There was some family’s house around her house, included her sister, Satuni.
Marayama don't know exactly when she was born. But she's a kid when the occupation of Japan. So I expect she's born in the 30 's, the era of the pakkacaping2  legend, I Pasoq. So her age is around 80 years.Marayama has four siblings, all of them can play kacaping. They are I Yasi (female), Lemba (male), Satuni, Marayama, Sapa (female, can play kacaping but was not her job). Among them, the oldest brother (I Yasi) was the most expert play Kacaping. Although both parents Marayama could play kacaping, but  Marayama and her sisters taught play kacaping from the oldest sister, I Yasi.
Marayama’s father named I Jalaq ( from Kambaqjawa, Samasundu ), her mother named Maliaya ( from Galung, Majene ). For farming ,they move from their hometown, Renggeang and Marayama was born there, to Tandassura. Both Marayama’s parents were not pakkacaping. Different to Marayama’s grandfather. He's a Paqgeso , ancient musical instrument from Southern Sulawesi Island. This instrumen like a violin. Usually played on traditonal circumcition and Marriage .We can’t find this intrument anymore.
Marayama’s Grandfather called I Roa, her parents (Marayama’s great-grandfather) came from Lombok and Salabose (Majene). In addition to paqgeso, he is a kacaping maker too. So little Marayama very familiar with her lifetime things (kacaping). Not only from her grandfather and her older brother, Marayama influenced to played kacaping from her uncle, namely Sumaati and her aunt, I Cicci. I Cicci could play kacaping  better than her friends.When I Cicci got old. She lived with Marayama who helped her when she got paralyzed. Not only inherited skill to play kacaping. From I Cicci but also inherited an ancient kacaping  which is currently hanging in the Marayama’s living room. 
Her First husband called Ba’durramang, Bandru’s servant (famous gangster leader). They lived in Puppengaq. Ba’durramang was killed in Kayumate, Mamuju. Actually Marayama follow her husband to Mamuju, but she's back to Majene. Sometime later there was a news that her husband killed by the Bugis, led by Salla Kalluq, on Sunday night. Then Marayama married Ba’as but she divorced because he was playboy.Both Ba’durramang and Ba’as were Tandassura villagers. From their marriage, Marayama had no children. So, Marayama named as Kanneq Manang (manang = tamanang, barren).For present generation, barren is a taunt, but it's actually a common thing. In fact there were a King whose name based on the their lack, for example Tokape and Andi Depu (‘depu’ word derived from word ’arepus’ which means ugly).
Before 90s Era, and Mandar was a very isolated area, go play kacaping is a serious challenge. When Marayama was a young lady, she accompanied by her father.For play kacaping, Marayama and her sister often went out more than a week. No car and motorcycle so they walking especially to reach more isloated area like Ratte Kallang, Tu’bi, etc. They paid with money or harvest product.
Sometimes Marayama and her sister attacked by black magic. Like when they played on Tu’bi, Marayama felt twisted by a big snake and told it to Satuni but Satuni couldn’t see anything. Other times, there are light similar to coals shell fluttering around them.Sometimes kacaping suddenly disappeared but the sound is heard. Even the mats  was often used as a medium for attacking them when playing kacaping. The mats and pillows scroll directly (commonly used for disproving the thigh during play) suddenly like living things, between the pillow and mats fight each other.
Physically they attacked too. Their body got injury and diarrhea. But Satuni and Marayama proud, although they attacked by blackmagic, they didn’t thing to stop play kacaping, they consisted to pluck kacaping string, like a a scene in the Kung Fu Hustle. The other challenge when Marayama and Satuni play kacaping is a fight between spectators. It is common in Mandar, in the 80s era, every croed event must be a fight and killed each others.
A prohibit to step on kacaping and sometimes could make people unlucky or danger.When someone makes a vow (the promise), for example, if I have a Buffalo I would invite pakkacaping. When nazar was not fulfilled, he would get sick. At the same time, the kacaping at Marayama’s home will be tense strings, frequently sound weird. It is a sign there that somebody has not met his vow, somebody would  sick. To solve it, invited the pakkacaping. When a pakkacaping brought his kacaping passing in front of your house and you greets him and he didn’t greets to you. You’ll be sick and to solve it you had  to invite him. So we didn’t need to greets pakkacaping but if he didn’t bring his kacaping no worry.
In the 40s era, Marayama and I Tage got achievment a silver pins from Tenggelang District Government (Puang Tenggelang Hamma), Lambe Lotong, Sumarrang Village (known Campalagian). More than five decades later, Marayama with Cammana (rebana’s player), Tombo Palua (dancer, singer and calong player), Ka’dara (pakkacaping, keke player and calong player) and Ma’dang (pa’raga) got Sipakaraya Achievment from Sipakaraya Forum at Tinambung (Sept 2009).
Dalif Palipoi ( a cultural observer) proposed to acquire Marayama Award from the Ministry of culture and tourism. Goverment usually invited Marayama and the public too. Sometimes Marayama invited by Arajang (Mandar Queen) Andi Depu who lived in Makassar as a strategy to against Netherland Occupation.
Now, no one to practice play kacaping.. Pakkacaping regeneration less than Cammana (tambourine player. There are some factors :
First, almost imposibble to find youth want to play kacaping especially young lady. Second, to be a pakkacaping take a long time. Not only to memoryze song, but also ability of improvisation understading stories and knowledge in Mandar literature (kalindaqda and some adaptation words when Sung). Third, when you expect revenue from the play kacaping, it is very difficult. Pakkacaping only  invited on certain events (e.g., the welcomed festival)and sometimes from the general public. Pakkacaping is no longer entertainment. It replaced by Orchestra, gambus, band and, sayang-sayang.
However, Marayama has taught  play kacaping to some people, i.e I Kanda (Lena, Galung Lombok), Cicciq Moreq (Lebukang), Jagariah (Pakkaqbang, Tandassura), Patima (Pakkaqbang, Tandassura), and Indoq Sogo (Sossoq). The latter is probably still alive, but it's been a few years Marayama never met him. Marayama also has taught a passayang-sayang, but not for long time because the students things play kacaping is very difficult.
Now Marayama use her fourth kacaping made in the Kappung Lena (Galung Lombok) in 40s, made from kuqmil wood (jackfruit). Some kacaping is not used because of the damage, not because it is obsolete. There is due to fall from the backrest and fell right up the motorcycle. Damaged cartilage causes the kacaping wooden  is very thin. Interestingly, the strongest strings was brake motorcycle wire. She also use string made from gold. She got it  from a Buginese Goldsmith fan to her. Bugis kacaping smaller than Mandar kacaping. Bugis Kacaping put in hand  but Mandar kacaping must be rest on the stomatch.
We have to appreciate Maramaya concistenty in order to entertain the people who invite or request it. She's proven makkacaping as a way of life. He could be ascertained as kacaping maestro. As art of Mandar culture,Marayama is the last pakkacaping woman heir . Although her sister, Satuni, was also a player and often duet with her. Marayama has a special ability. For example the specificity of her voice, a bit of baritone and when singing, each end of the temple there is a heart wrenching shrill. That's not including the ability to deliver oral stories to audience.
In conclusion, We must appreciate Marayama and other kacaping playersby giving them awards, studying them, documenting the capabilities and their life stories, and give them freedom to express her makkacaping skill. A pakkacaping paid IDR Rp. 300.000-500.000 for play till midnight. If we compare with a seminar speaker, for a hour, they paid for a milion. So, pakkacaping fare is reasonable. If there were no invitations to play kacaping, kacaping gradually will hang on be unheritable skill. Therefore, there are no youth interested to be a pakkacaping. Kacaping as a peak of Mandar art will lost whether gracefull kacaping putrefied.

1.      Kacaping is a traditional music instrument like a guitar well known in Indonesia as kecapi but in different model and size for every region.
2.      Pakkacaping, a kacaping player
3.      Mandar region is refers to afdeling Mandar or West Sulawesi now.

       This article is translated by Muhammad Zulkifli underlicense from the author Muhammad Ridwan Alimuddin. You can read the source in Marayama Pakkacaping Tobaine Terakhir